ANALYSIS OF FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS AT SPINDLE OF CNC MACHINING CENTRE

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_201627
ANDREA CIZIKOVA1, KATARINA MONKOVA1, PETER MONKA1,2, MAREK URBAN2
1TU Kosice, Faculty of manufacturing technologies with the seat in Presov, Presov, Slovak Republic
2University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Pilsen, Czech Republic
e-mail: katarina.monkova@tuke.sk
Abstract
The paper deals with an analysis of frequency characteristics scanned at the spindle of CNC machining centre Pinnacle PKVMC650S.It also points on the early diagnostics necessity of possible sources of unwanted vibrations to predict the
behaviour of devices, to find out the life of devices and to improve the quality of machined surface. The method of the planned experiment was used as the research method. The aim of experiments was to measure the frequency characteristics
and their effective values. The experimental measures were done at three cutting speeds during the machining, i. e. when
the tool was in contact with the workpiece. Measures were processed by means of module NI 9234 software LabVIEW. The
experimental measures have shown that the spindle of CNC machine does not show the critical vibrations, and it can be
considered acceptable for unrestricted operations.
Keywords: frequency, amplitude, frequency characteristics, machining, analysis
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INFLUENCE OF HIGH ENERGY TREATMENT ON WEAR OF EDGES KNIVES OF WOOD-CUTTING TOOL

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI : 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_201683
VADZIM CHAYEUSKI1, VALERY ZHYLINSKI2, ALEXANDER GRISHKEVICH3, PAVEL RUDAK4, STEFAN BARCIK5
1Belarusian State Technological University, Department of Physics, Information Technology Faculty, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
2Belarusian State Technological University, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Electrochemical Production Technology and Materials for Electronic Equipment, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
3Belarusian State Technological University, Faculty of Forestry Engineering and Wood Technology, Department of Woodworking Machines and Tools, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
4Belarusian State Technological University, Faculty of Forestry Engineering and Wood Technology, Department of Material Science and Metal Technology, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
5Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology, Department of Machinery Control and Automation, Zvolen, Slovak Republic
e-mail: chayeuski@belstu.by
Abstract
PVD, combined electroplating and PVD methods were applied to increase wear resistance of the hard alloy cutting elements for woodworking. Laminated chipboards milled by a tool with knives were coated with ZrN, Mo-N, and ZrN-Ni-Co layers.  Abrasive wear of tools blades occurred. The wear intensity of the knife blades with deposited coatings was reduced. The value of volume wear of knife blades with coatings was calculated.  If compared with bare tool, wear resistance of ZrN-coated blade increased to 50%, while wear resistance of Mo-N-coated blade increased to 70%.
Keywords
: coating, milling tool, knives, blade, wear
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SELECTED TIRE CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR RELATION TO ITS RADIAL STIFFNESS

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_201687
MARIAN KUCERA, MILAN HELEXA, MICHAL MOLENDA
Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology, Department of Mechanics, Mechanical Engineering and Design, Zvolen, Slovak Republic
e-mail: marian.kucera@tuzvo.sk
Abstract
The article deals with the description of the experimental results of static radial deformation characteristics measurement for the selected tire and its impact on the size of the contact area,  contact pressure and rolling resistance on a solid support. The measurement was carried out on the diagonal tire Mitas TS05 10.0/75-15.3 PR10 in the area of the test soil channel. The radial deformation characteristics of the tire in question were determined for inflation pressures of 300 kPa, 220 kPa, 160 kPa, and 100 kPa, with a radial load of the tire varying in the range from 567.9 kg to 1025.09 kg. At the same time, the treadmarks of the tire contact area were made for the corresponding inflation pressure and the corresponding radial load. The size of these treadmarks was subsequently measured using the digital Koizumi KP-90N polar planimeter. The mean contact pressure values on a solid support were subsequently calculated from the values of  the tire radial load and the obtained contact surfaces. The calculated static radial stiffness value was obtained through the linearization of the measured deformation characteristics according to Jante. Rolling tire resistances on a solid support were verified by pulling the test wheel using the auxiliary winding system of the test equipment, the soil channel, along the concrete surface after removing the container with soil.
Keywords
: terramechanics, mobile machinery, wheeled chassis, soil bin, rolling resistance, tire stiffness
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POLICY OF INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT AT THE WOOD SECTOR IN POLAND

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI : 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_201696

IWONA ZABINSKA, ERIKA SUJOVA
Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Organization, Institute of Production Engineering, Zabrze, Poland
Technical University in Zvolen,Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology, Department of Manufacturing Technology and Quality Management, Zvolen, Slovak Republic
e-mail : Iwona.Zabinska@polsl.pl
Abstract

This article presents synthetically the situation of companies of the wood sector in Poland and describes the directions of development of their innovation, in particular for wood and furniture industry. Furthermore, it describes European Union policy to support activities of producers of the wood sector and identifies selected sources of financing their activities. The article attempts to indicate the place of the wood sector in the national and regional smart specialization, playing a key role in the EU financial perspective for the years 2014-2020.
Keywords
:wood sector, innovation, innovation policy, wood cluster, smart specialization
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EVALUATION OF S-PARAMETERS ON THE SURFACE OF TITANIUM ALLOY TI-6AL-4V AND AL99.5 MACHINED BY WEDM

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016107
KATERINA MOURALOVA, JIRI KOVAR, SLIWKOVA PETRA
Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Brno, Czech Republic

e-mail: mouralova@fme.vutbr.cz
Abstract
Efficient machining using the technology of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a compromise between cutting speed and surface quality. Typical morphology of WEDM processed surface features plenty of craters caused by electrospark discharges produced during the cutting process. The study deals with the evaluation of S-parameters enabling quantitative evaluation of the surface in all directions which are technically significant. Attention was also paid to surface morphology and its evaluation using 3D colour-filtered and unfiltered images. The experiment included 33 variants of setting machine parameters on samples made of two metallic materials: Al 99.5 and Ti-6Al-4V.
Keywords: WEDM, electrical discharge machining, titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, aluminium Al 99.5, S-parameters
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DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTAL TOOL FOR TUBE HYDROFORMING

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016131
MICHAELA CISAROVA, MICHAL HORAK,EVA PETERKOVA
Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Department of Metal Forming, Brno, Czech Republic

e-mail: cisarova@fme.vutbr.cz,peterkova@fme.vutbr.cz
Abstract
When forming a material, its good formability is essential. It is primarily influence by mechanical properties and chemical composition of the material. Formability can be assessed by mechanical tests, or technological tests. Tensile test is one of the most common mechanical tests used to obtain basic mechanical properties of the material. Another possibility how to evaluate the behavior of a material under given a load is to select a proper technological test with an appropriate experimental tool.  Design of a tool should be simple, save and it should allow monitoring during the test, i.e. tube hydroforming. Article deals with design of experimental tool for the realization of  experiments using radial hydroforming tubes whose ends will be fixed inside the tool because of an earlier setting of limit state of deformation.
Keywords: formability, hydroforming of tubes, experimental tool
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TECHNOLOGY FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF BIOMASS

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016139
JAN GADUS, TOMAS GIERTL
Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of European Studies and Regional Development, Department of Regional Bioenergy, Nitra, Slovak Republic
e-mail : Jan.Gadus@uniag.sk
Abstract
The paper describes a modern technology of biomass lowtemperature thermochemical conversion for production of biogenic fuels in gaseous, liquid and solid phases. The equipment which was acquired during the life of the project "Building Research Centre AgroBioTech", ITMS code: 26220220180, allows carrying out long-term experiments in pilot conditions. As an example of the high efficiency of the biomass conversion we present results of experiments with the use of agro pellets, while using the dose input of 63 kg/h a highly energy valuable synthesis gas with the average flow rate of 10 m3/h, liquid component - reactor oil in the volume of 20l/h, and the solids - carbon in the amount of 21 kg/h was obtained.
Keywords:biomass, low-temperature thermochemical conversion, biogenic fuel, renewable energy sources
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RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TECHNOLOGICAL AND MATERIAL PARAMETERS DURING DENSIFICATION OF CHERRY TREE SAWDUST

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI : 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016142
PETER KRIZAN, MILOS MATUS, JURAJ BENIAK
Slovak University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Manufacturing Systems, Environmental Technology and Quality Management, Bratislava, Slovak Republic

e-mail: peter.krizan@stuba.sk
Abstract
In this paper, we will present the research findings concerning relationships between technological and material parameters during densification of cherry tree sawdust. In general during in the biomass densification process technological and material variables influence this process and thus the final briquettes quality. The main goal of presented experimental research is to determine the impact and relationship between compression pressure and particle size. These variables are influencing lonely treatment, densification and also the combustion of final briquettes from cherry tree sawdust. The abovementioned impact of these variables can be observed during densification in the quality indicators. Experimental research findings were obtained using single-axis densification. The influence of the particle size interacting with compression pressure on the final density was determined. The experimental research findings presented here should prove the significance in briquette production and also in the engineering of densification machines.
Keywords: biomass, densification, briquetting machine, briquettes density, compression pressure, particle size, moisture content
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RESEARCH OF SELECTED MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE RECYCLED PLASTIC

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI : 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016156
LYDIA SOBOTOVA, MIROSLAV BADIDA, TIBOR DZURO, MAREK MORAVEC, PAVOL LIPTAI
Technical University of Kosice, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, Kosice, Slovak Republic
e-mail : lydia.sobotova@tuke.sk, miroslav.badida@tuke.sk, tibor.dzuro@tuke.sk, marek.moravec@tuke.sk, pavol.liptai@tuke.sk
Abstract
Plastics are relatively new materials used in almost all areas of human activity, and also in various branches of live and industries. Given the annually growing produce of plastics, their volume are evenly growing up also in the waste, therefore it is necessary to solve the waste from the increasing volume of waste plastic. The contribution deals with the using and testing of sorted plastic waste. From the plastic waste as a semi-product is prepared the plastic plates by extruding technology, it means recycled plastics processing and verifying of their selected mechanical properties. It also deals with testing of selected plastic shaped plates. There are mentioned also the most usual impurities in the testing samples, created  during the production. Contribution was originated as collaboration with TOPlast, Inc. Kosice.
Keywords: plastics, recycling of plastics, mechanical testing, waste, material
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DESIGNING A COMPACT DUAL HEAD FOR FLM 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGY

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016181
PETR KELLER
Technical University of Liberec, Department of Manufacturing Systems and Automation, Liberec, Czech Republic
e-mail: petr.keller@tul.cz
Abstract
This article deals with designing a compact head for 3D printing using Fused Layer Modelling technology, better known as Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) registered by Stratasys. Technically this technology is an extrusion process, which is very popular e.g. with the RepRap community. The aim is to design a print head based on commercially available basic components for printing two different materials, i.e. to allow control of an extrusion process for each material separately. It also has to be possible to switch nozzles with various diameters. The entire structure of the head should preferably be compact and lightweight to facilitate easy installation into the 3D printer.
Keywords: FLM, FDM, 3D printing, dual head, design
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DETERMINATION OF MEASUREMENT ACCURACY OF OPTICAL 3D SCANNERS

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016183
RADOMIR MENDRICKY
Technical University of Liberec, Department of Manufacturing Systems and Automation, Liberec, Czech Republic
e-mail: radomir.mendricky@tul.cz
Abstract
Nowadays, the use of optical 3D digitisation in metrology becomes more frequent and desired. Unfortunately, there are still no binding standards for determining measurement uncertainty of these systems and manufacturers of 3D scanners often use their own standards to define accuracy of their device. This paper introduces a methodology to assess the accuracy of digitisation using 3D optical scanners. The paper deals with practical implementation of an acceptance test for ATOS contact-less 3D scanners (from design and manufacturing of own test etalon, through the determination of its nominal dimensions, up to digitisation and evaluation) and publishes the results of several experiments demonstrating the impact of various factors on measurement accuracy.
Keywords: Optical measurement, optical 3D scanner, 3D digitization, accuracy, calibration, Acceptance test, Atos
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CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF MATERIALS USED IN ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016185
JIRI SAFKA, MICHAL ACKERMANN, DAVID MARTIS
Technical University of Liberec, The Institute for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technology and Innovation
Liberec, Czech Republic

e-mail: jiri.safka@tul.cz
Abstract
This article deals with the mechanical testing of polymeric materials processed using 3D printing and exposed to different chemical compounds. Information on this resistance is very important for the user from the point of view of the multidisciplinary use of prototypes of 3D printers for various applications. Materials used for these purposes are processed using the photopolymer processing technology PolyJet Matrix technology and thermoplastics processed using FDM technology. Testing was conducted in accordance with the international standards ČSN EN ISO 175 and ČSN EN ISO 527. The conclusion of the article describes an evaluation of the mechanical and physical properties of the materials tested before and after chemical loading.
Keywords: fused deposition modelling, polyJet matrix, polymers, tensile test
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IMPACT RESISTANCE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LATTICE STRUCTURES MANUFACTURED BY SLM

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016186
RADEK VRANA, DANIEL KOUTNY, DAVID PALOUSEK
Brno University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering
Brno, Czech Republic

e-mail: vrana@fme.vutbr.cz
Abstract
The presented paper describes the impact resistance of lattice structure samples made by Selective Laser Melting with the use of AlSi10Mg powder material. The samples with five types of different unit cells of lattice structure were used in this study. The topology of the unit cells structure was changed to describe various impact resistance behavior while the relative density of lattice structure was kept constant. The samples were tested by drop-weight impact testing device with spherical shape of indenter. During the test the maximum reaction force, deceleration and position of load element (indenter) were measured. The results showed, that samples with the same relative density, but with a different shape of unit cell had a different impact resistance. It is because the mechanical properties are significantly influenced by the cell topology which determined the type of failure under loading – bending or buckling. The FBCCZ had the highest impact resistance, but the energy was absorbed with very high reaction force during absorption.
Keywords: Selective Laser Melting, lattice structure, impact resistance, AlSi10Mg, gyroid, energy absorption, topology
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MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POWDER CoCrW-ALLOY PREPARED BY AM TECHNOLOGY

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016189
ALICA FEDORIKOVA1, RADOVAN HUDAK2, JOZEF ZIVCAK2, ROBERT BIDULSKY1, PATRIK PETROUSEK1, JANA BIDULSKA1, ROBERT KOCISKO1,VIKTORIA RAJTUKOVA2
Technical University of Kosice
1Institute of Materials, Faculty of Metallurgy,
2Institute of Security and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Kosice, Slovak Republic

e-mail: alica.fedorikova@tuke.sk
Abstract
This study is focused on the evaluation of mechanical properties and microstructure of fabricating Ni-free CoCrWalloy. Samples were prepared by additive manufacturing technology – selective laser melting. The chemical composition of used metal powder was – 60.5% Co, 28% Cr and 9%W. Parameters of SLM were given by powder supplier. The shape of thesampleis designed according to MPIF. After recommended heat treatment, the static tensile test was carried out at Tinius Olsen machine, the microstructure and porositywere observed, also. In results is interpreted the relations between porosity, microstructure, and mechanical properties. This report is the basis for further experiments aimed at improving the mechanical properties about manufacturing conditions.
Keywords: powder CoCrW-alloy, selective laser melting, mechanical properties, porosity
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COMPARISON OF SELECTIVE LASER MELTING OF 18NI MARAGING STEEL BY PXL AND M2 CUSING

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016191
DANIEL KOUTNY, LIBOR PANTELEJEV, JAN TOMES, DAVID PALOUSEK
Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, NETME Centre,
Brno, Czech Republic

e-mail:daniel.koutny@vut.cz
Abstract
This study compares 18Ni maraging steel processing on two competitive SLM machines, PXL and M2 Cusing. For the production of samples, powder material from original machine supplier was used on each machine separately. Process parameters for the production of small thin-walled parts were set individually on each machine according the recommendation of the device manufacturer. The basic mechanical properties of the produced materials were determined using tensile tests and hardness measurement. Metallographic and fractographic analyses were conducted by means of a lightand scanning electron microscopes. In comparison to M2 Cusing, higher relative density achieving 99.9% in the volume of material, was measured on the thin walled samples of PXL. The reason is probably higher energy density during material processing. As a consequence, the specimens from PXL had slightly better mechanical properties.
Keywords: Selective Laser Melting, MaragingSteel, Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Fractography
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NEED FOR SUPPORT STRUCTURES DEPENDING ON OVERHANG SIZE

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016192
MILAN DANA, IVANA ZETKOVA, PAVEL HANZL
University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Regional Technological Institute
Pilsen, Czech Republic

e-mail: danam@rti.zcu.cz
Abstract
This paper is focused on 3D printing of metal parts and the limitations of this method. There are numerous methods currently used for 3D printing, for example, DMLS, SLS, CLADDING, etc. This paper is limited to 3D printing using DMLS (Direct Metal Laser Sintering). The method works with metal powder, which is applied to a building platform in thin layers. The shape of a part is sintered using a laser beam in each layer. The part is built layer by layer. The material used for the experiment was maraging steel 1.2709. Laser sintering was undertaken using the EOSINT M 290. We used the process parameters recommended for this powder by the equipment manufacturer. The measurements were carried out on a Blickle Multicheck PC500 microscope. The goal of the experiment was to find the size of the overhang which does not show signs of degradation of the geometry of the overhang.
Keywords: 3D print, DMLS, MS1 – 1.2709, Overhanging ends, Geometry
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GEOMETRIC ERRORS COMPENSATION OF CNC MACHINE TOOL

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016194
MICHAL HOLUB, PETR BLECHA, FRANTISEK BRADAC, TOMAS MAREK, ZDENEK ZAK
Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Brno, Czech Republic

e-mail:holub@fme.vutbr.cz
Abstract
This contribution assesses the possibilities of application of conventional compensation technology on a small three-axis vertical machining centre. Small CNC machine tools are intended for manufacture of small workpieces with dimensional accuracy of up to 0.001 mm. To achieve the required accuracy and reproducibility of manufacture, a variety of software compensations are deployed on machines. The aim of these compensations is to eliminate errors caused by deviations in the machine geometry, thermal expansion and dynamic compliance of the machine tool. In order to increase dimensional and geometric accuracy of workpieces, this study tested and evaluated methods to activate geometrical compensations such as approach to the desired position and volumetric compensations. Calibration and verification of set compensations were validated by testing geometric accuracy of machines using the devices Ballbar, Laser interferometer and LaserTRACER. Conclusions drawn from the performed study verified deployment of compensations on small CNC machine tools.
Keywords: geometric accuracy, volumetric accuracy, small CNC machine tools, Laser interferometer, Ballbar, LaserTRACER
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RISKS IN INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016195
LUBOS KOTEK1, ALES NOSEK2, ALOIS FIALA1, VOJTECH BARTOS3
1Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno, Czech Republic
2Brno University of Technology, Quality Management Department, Brno, Czech Republic
3Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Business and Management, Brno, Czech Republic

e-mail: kotek.l@fme.vutbr.cz
Abstract
This paper focuses on the evaluation of the approach to risk management in management systems in technical industries. The underlying framework is the updated standard ISO 9001 which is compared to the requirements of specific standards for the automotive industry, the aviation industry, the railway industry and the chemical and processing industries that fall under major accident prevention (SEVESO). This article aims to compare the requirements of these management systems for individual areas from the perspective of systemic risk prevention.
Keywords: management systems, risk management, system comparison
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SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF IRON-RHODIUM ALLOY AFTER WIRE EDM

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016196
KATERINA MOURALOVA1, RADIM ZAHRADNICEK2, JAN STREJCEK1
1Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno, Czech Republic
2Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno, Czech Republic

e-mail: mouralova@fme.vutbr.cz
Abstract
The iron-rhodium alloy, having very interesting magnetic properties, is being studied for future use in next-gen data storage methods, for which high-speed information inscription is predicted. The examined material has been made by casting, but a for the purpose of examining its magnetic properties, the need for reducing the size of the sample arose. Because of this, wire electrical discharge machining method has been chosen, which allowed halving the sample while keeping the purity and surface properties of the original sample. This study is evaluating the morphology of the cut using electron microscopy, including microanalysis of chemical composition of the sample. Profile and area parameters were also studied, which define quality of the machined surface.
Keywords: WEDM, electrical discharge machining, iron-rhodium alloy, quality of surface, Analysis of the chemical composition, EDX
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EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION ON THE QUALITY OF MACHINED SURFACE AFTER TURNING OF MATERIAL INCONEL 625

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016197
TOMAS PROKES, KATERINA MOURALOVA, JIRI KOVAR
Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Brno, Czech Republic

e-mail: mouralova@fme.vutbr.cz
Abstract
Study relates to machining of toughly-machined metal materials specifically turning of the Inconel 625. There had been planned an experiment to find out the impact of setting the individual parameters of machining(cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut)onto the quality of machined surface. Such experiment was the type of ‘box behnken’and contained 15 rounds. Following was the evaluation of the machined surface quality and their topography thanks to 3D profilometer Taylor Hobson Talysurf CCI Lite, based on which there were created 3D colour filtered pictures of the surface of the samples. Morphology of the surfaces was investigated by electron microscopy.
Keywords: turning, Inconel 625, surface quality, box behnken, design of experiment
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MACHINING OF HIGHLY ORIENTED PYROLITIC GRAPHITE USING WEDM AND THE RESULTING QUALITY OF THE SURFACE

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016198
KATERINA MOURALOVA1, JIRI KOVAR1, RADIM ZAHRADNICEK2
1Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno, Czech Republic
2Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno, Czech Republic

e-mail: mouralova@fme.vutbr.cz
Abstract
Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is a material usually made for specific dimensions, however sometimes the need for altering them may arise. For this reason, it is necessary to choose a suitable technology for machining the material. This study deals with machining a part of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). The morphology of the cut and the whole part was then evaluated using both electron and optical microscopy, including microanalysis of chemical composition (EDX). Subsequently, any significant delamination of the surface was studied, with several places differently colored than the rest of the surface.
Keywords: WEDM, electrical discharge machining, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, quality of surface, Analysis of the chemical composition, HOPG, EDX
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INNOVATION TESTING OF BENDING OF THE MACHINE-TOOL FRAMES

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016199
OLDRICH UCEN1, LUBOMIR W. NOVOTNY2
1VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Ostrava, Czech Republic
2Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Production Machines, Systems and Robotics
Brno, Czech Republic

e-mail: oldrich.ucen@vsb.cz, novotny.l@fme.vutbr.cz
Abstract
The paper deals with the issue of geometric precision measuring at large parts (especially at castings having big dimensions) in their manufacturing stage. The large parts of machine-tool frames are required to have their geometric tolerances in thousandths of millimetres. The production or cooperation abilities of the particular company must be adapted to these demands and it is also necessary to adapt the company metrological equipment and measuring procedures to them. The standard measuring equipment cannot be used in most cases, because the particular parts are too large. For this reason, it is necessary to search such methods and procedures which enable to perform measuring with the relevant result. It could be considered to use e.g. 3D scanners. Unfortunately, their measuring precision has not reached the required tolerances up to now. For example, the HandyPROBE 3D scanner measures with the precision of 0.022 mm [CMM 2015].
Keywords: geometric precision, guideways, FEM calculations, machine tools, machine-tool frame, rotating screw
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OCCURRENCE OF GLOBULE OF DEBRIS ON SURFACES MACHINED BY WEDM

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016200
KATERINA MOURALOVA1, RADIM ZAHRADNICEK2, RADIM HRDY2
1Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno, Czech Republic
2Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno, Czech Republic

e-mail:mouralova@fme.vutbr.cz
Abstract
Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) cuts material using the principles of electroerosion, which conclusively defines the resulting morphology of the machined surface. During the erosion process, removal of tiny particles of material (tiny globules) is achieved using a stream of dielectric. On certain surfaces, these tiny globules get stuck during the thermaltreatment and remain on the machined surface. This thesis studies these globules of debris on foursamples of two metallic materials with various heat treatment using electron microscopy. Furthermore, a part of the globule was removed using a focused iont beam, which allowed for studying its inside and analyzing the chemical composition in its individual parts.
Keywords: WEDM,electrical discharge machining, titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, iron-rhodium alloy, globule of debris
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VERIFICATION OF PREDICTION METHOD FOR ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF MACHINE TOOL FEED AXES

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI : 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016201
JIRI TUMA, ZDENEK TUMA, MILOS SYNEK
Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic

e-mail: tuma.j@fme.vutbr.cz
Abstract
Energy efficiency of electrical appliances is highly debated topic at present.This topic is transferred especially in industries where are the effects of savings much more significant due to higher energy consumption.In the case of machine tools is at present energy efficiency also a hot topic,basedon the Kyoto Protocol and the European Commission Regulation of energy appliances eco-design.Machine tool manufacturers already responses to this situation by using more efficient components (motors, pumps,etc...).This article focuses especially on determining the energy profile of the machine tool at the moment where the machine is not manufactured.It is used a method allows to simulate the energy profile of the machine tool. This is verified by measurement on the test device. Realized measurement was done under different loads of clamping table and under different feed rates. Average percentual error was achieved below ten percent limit.
Keywords: energy efficiency, machine tool, feed axis, simulation, verification
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VIBRATION AND RELATED DIAGNOSTICS OF MOTORS AND GENERATORS

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI : 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016202
JAN LIPUS, ROBERT JANKOVYCH, MILOS HAMMER, TADEAS LIPUS
Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Production Machines, Systems and Robotics
e-mail: jan.lipus@vutbr.cz; jankovych@fme.vutbr.cz; hammer@fme.vutbr.cz; tadeas.lipus@vutbr.cz
Abstract
This article is devoted to diagnostics of rotating machines – electric motors and generators. It describes their basic characteristics and failure modes in terms of statistics and experience. The methods of multi-parametric approach to electrical machines diagnostics are listed. The analysis methods based of vibration measurement are emphasized due to the fact that vibration analysis is the best way to define the condition of any rotational machines. In addition, vibration can be, in some circumstances, successfully used for the evaluation of electromagnetic faults as well. The article introduces actual examples of deficiencies of mechanical and electrical motors using different diagnostics methods.
Keywords: electric motor, machine failures, diagnostics, vibrations,condition monitoring
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ACCURACY OF MEASUREMENT IN NANOMETROLOGY

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI : 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016203
JAN SRAMEK1, ROBERT JANKOVYCH2
1 Department of primary nanometrology and technical length, Czech Metrology Institute, Brno, Czech Republic
2 Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Republic

e-mail: jsramek@cmi.cz
Abstract
The presented article focuses on measurements of extremely small dimensions in nanometrology using tactile probes. It addresses a newly developed method of precise measurements in nanometrology by touch probes, where the measurements are carried out on the machine SIOS NMM-1. The aim of this work is to determine accuracy of measurements on this machine. The main contribution of this work is a creation of a methodology for the measurement of precision parts and determination of accuracy of measurement when using this device in nanometrology. The work also includes methodology for the calculation of measurement uncertainty, a keystone in determining the accuracy of measurement in nanometrology. The article provides results of representative sets of measurements of ruby ball diameters, including the evaluation of statistical parameters and determination of the combined measurement uncertainty.
Keywords: accuracy of measurement, length measurement, measurement repeatability, measurement reproducibility, measurement uncertainty, measuring device, nanometrology, ruby ball
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QUANTITIES AND SENSORS FOR MACHINE TOOL SPINDLE CONDITION MONITORING

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI : 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016204
LUDEK JANAK, JAKUB STETINA, ZDENEK FIALA, ZDENEK HADAS
Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno, Czech Republic
e-mail: janak@fme.vutbr.cz
Abstract
The state-of-art machine tools incorporate a wide variety of sensors and associated signals that are used within the control system or as a process monitoring variables. Machine tool canalso be equipped with additional sensors required by customer or manufacturer with relatively no limitation. Therefore, the key issue is in “separating the wheat from the chaff”. Only those data that can be linked to machine tool failures, unintended customers’ behaviour, or (exceeding) machine loading, are suitable for further implementation in machine tool condition monitoring system. This paper uses the methods formerly known from system safety and reliability analysis – namely Failure Modes and Effects Analyses (FMEA) and its Diagnostics extension (FMEDA) – to identify such data and physical quantities. The outlined approach is supported by a practical case study on machine tool spindle condition monitoring. The proposed spindle monitoring is based on noise intensity and indirect cutting force measurement.
Keywords: machine tool diagnostics, condition based maintenance, sensor fusion, Industry 4.0, HUMS, FMEA, TCM
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DESIGN OF THE PUMP CONTROLLER OF THE LOW PRESSURE SEWER NETWORK

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016205
JAN RUCKA1, ONDREJ ANDRS2, JIRI KOVAR2
1 Brno University of Technology. Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Municipal Water Management
2 Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Production Systems and Virtual Reality, Czech Republic

e-mail: rucka.j@fce.vutbr.cz, andrs@fme.vutbr.cz
Abstract
The paper deals with the low pressure sewer networks which are used for the systematic drainage of wastewater in locations where it is not technically possible, respectively economically advantageous to build a gravity sewer network. With regard to the size of the urban area, town or drainage site these systems can be very large, involving tens or hundreds of independently working pumps that are connected to the common pipeline system. The right one, or rather the optimal topology design of such a system and performance parameters of its elements is therefore a great challenge. The subsequent operation of the low pressure sewer network system also requires a considerable know-how, particularly with regard to the fact that these are technically complex systems with many components which exhibit a variety of typical operating defects. The removal of these disorders requires a deep understanding of the issues, experience, and availability of adequate industrial solutions. One of the possible failures of the low pressure sewer network is clogging of the pipelines with sediment from wastewater. The following  text describes the technical way to prevent the clogging of the pipeline of a low pressure sewer network. This paper presents an intelligent flushing system which is developed within the research project reg. No. TA04010023 at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology.
Keywords: low pressure sewer, operation, design, waste water, clogging, flushing
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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VALUES OF PROFILE AND AREAL SURFACE TEXTURE PARAMETERS

MM (Modern Machinery) Science Journal, December 2016
DOI: 10.17973/MMSJ.2016_12_2016206
MATEJ HARCARIK, ROBERT JANKOVYCH
Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Production Machines, Systems and Robotics, Brno, Czech Republic
e-mail: matej.harcarik@vutbr.cz; jankovych@fme.vutbr.cz
Abstract
This paper presents a regression analysis of the relationship between values of profile and areal surface texture parameters extracted from the same surfaces. The problem of tolerancing for areal surface texture evaluation is briefly introduced. Basic concepts of and differences between areal and profile evaluation are discussed. Measurements of 21 samples of diverse origin are used as data for linear regression of dependencies of areal surface texture parameters Sa, Sq and Sz on their roughness profile equivalents Ra, Rq and Rz. Recommendations for calculation of areal surface texture parameter’s tolerance values are discussed based on the results of the analysis. The resulting regression equations provide a fast method for selection of areal surface texture tolerance values based on previous experience with profile parameters.
Keywords: surface texture, surface metrology, areal surface texture parameters, tolerances, regression
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