The thermomechanical load on the workpiece surface during the machining process strongly influences its surface integrity and the resulting fatigue strength of the components. In single-lip drilling, the measurement of the mechanical load using dynamometers is well established, but the thermal interactions between the tool and the workpiece material in the surface area are difficult to determine with conventional test setups. In this paper, the development and implementation of an in-process measurement of the thermal load on the bore subsurface is presented. The experimental setup includes a two-color ratio pyrometer in combination with thermocouples, which enable temperature measurement on the tool’s cutting edge as well as in the bore subsurface. In combination, a force measurement dynamometer for measuring the occurring force and torque is used. Thus, the influence of different cutting parameter variations on the thermomechanical impact on the bore surface can be evaluated.