The authors within the scientific contribution present the maintenance task to provide aircrafts ready for flight. Engineering standards and the framework of international and national air law are fundamental for efficient and reliable aircraft maintenance services. The present thesis provides an insight into general maintenance fundamentals, legal requirements and into actual organization of this business. The second step is to identify optimization potential in scientific-validated and condition-based maintenance, spare part logistics and in applied quality management systems. Due to this optimization potential a new quality management approach is created on a scientific basis, it considers the identified gaps of the present systems.