Development of the territories with specific climatic conditions requires the selection of effective materials. Multilayer composite materials are suitable for these purposes in road construction in the Arctic. The article presents a design scheme for a multilayer road surface, which is used to determine the collection of traffic loads. The method of solving the inverse Cauchy problem and the empirical formula to determine the value of the temperature arising from deformation at the contact point of the surface of a multilayer road surface and transport are determined. The experimental studies conducted were aimed to determine the heat transfer through a three-layer road surface made of structural foam concrete of the D1200 brand. The processing of experimental data on temperature values made it possible to derive the formula to determine the change in the layers’ temperature depending on their number.