Presented paper deals with the development of a procedure for fast measurement and evaluation of the set of basic geometric errors of the five-axis milling machines. Based on R-test measurement a rotary axes pivot point position and orientation errors and linear axes squareness errors are evaluated. The developed procedure is experimentally verified on a five-axis milling machine. Using the kinematic model, the significance of the considered geometric errors to the overall volumetric accuracy of the test machine tool is tested. The results obtained using the developed procedure are verified by comparing with the measurement and evaluation of results obtained using conventional measurement methods. The results show that the set of evaluated geometric errors has a major influence on the machine's motion accuracy along the measured five-axis interpolated trajectory.