The article deals with the maintenance and technical diagnostics of machine tools. The basic knowledge about maintenance, distribution of maintenance and also important facts about the diagnostics are provided. Attention is focused on the possibility of using technical diagnostics as an instrument to improve maintenance. Article is describing an experiment in the engineering company. It proceeds from the current state of maintenance and suggests a plan of innovation. This proceeds from FMEA and FMECA analysis and the vibrodiagnostics is submitted as one of the possible methods of improving maintenance of machine tools. The article describes and evaluates the experiment and carry out recommendations for specific conditions in described company.