Cryogenic minimum quantity lubrication using liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) has increasingly become the focus of research in recent years. With this cooling strategy it is possible to cool and lubricate the cutting zone individually by regulating the oil and liquid CO2 flow. The oil used has a significant influence on the process stability and performance. The aim of this study is to identify the influence of 15 different base oils from renewable sources on a milling process of X2CrNiMo17-12-2 with cryogenic minimum quantity lubrication. For this purpose, a non additivated sunflower, coconut and rapeseed oil and additional bio-based oils, such as synthetic ester and fatty alcohol, will be tested and compared to a conventional mineral oil regarding wear, process forces and productivity. In addition, the impact of the bio-based oils on rough turning of X2CrNiMo17-12-2 and finishing turning of 100Cr6 with cryogenic minimum quantity lubrication is evaluated and compared to the milling performance. The results have been analyzed in comparison to conventional emulsion flood cooling and recommendations have been given for the future development of sustainable lubricants to be applied with cryogenic cooling strategy.