Abrasives are an integral part of the abrasive water jet (AWJ) technology and have a significant impact on the efficiency and economy of the cutting process. The abrasive particles are accelerated by the water jet and transported to the point of their interaction with the cut material. There are many factors influencing the determination of the abrasive type to be used in the AWJ process. In this study, series of experiments were performed with the aim to evaluate the erosion performance of abrasive particles in an abrasive water jet cutting process. Three types of abrasives were used in the process of cutting of several types of materials by the abrasive water jet. The wear of a focusing tube due to the action of abrasive particles during their acceleration was also evaluated. The paper presents a methodology for evaluation of abrasives with respect to their use in the abrasive water jet cutting process.