MM Science Journal, December 2017

ULTRA NANOINDENATION TEST OF INJECTION POLYBUTYLENE TEREPHTHALATE (PBT) IRRADIATED BY LOW DOSES BETA IRRADIATION

MARTIN MIZERA, DAVID MANAS, MIROSLAV MANAS, LENKA GAJZLEROVA
Keywords: polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) | microhardness | mechanical properties | ß-irradiation | FTIR | WAXS

The influence of high doses of beta radiation on the changes in the structure and selected properties (mechanical and thermal) polymers were proved.  Using high doses of beta radiation for polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and its influence on the changes of mechanical properties of ultra nanohardness has not been studied in detail so far. The specimens of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) were made by in (…)

CONTROL SYSTEM OF HYDRAULIC RECOVERY MODULE OF ROAD ROLLER

JOSEF NEVRLY, ZDENEK NEMEC, JAN BRANDEJS
Keywords: control | energy | recovery | hydrostatic | module

This paper briefly describes some features of control of the hydrostatic recovery module developed within the framework of a research project. This project was focused on research and development of a new product - a hydrostatic system for energy recovery through breaking and start-up of commercial vehicles using control for energy transfer and optimization based on mathematical modeling of the system a (…)

SQUARE SHAPED INSERT´S LIFETIME WHEN MILLING INCONEL 718

IVAN MRKVICA, JANA PETRU, TOMAS ZLAMAL, MIROSLAV JANOS, TOMAS SZOTKOWSKI
Keywords: milling | Inconel 718 | cemented carbide | lifetime | cutting inserts

This article is focused on the analysis of tool wear in milling of Inconel 718. Inconel 718 is tough and highly temperature resistive material, which is used due to its excellent properties especially in aggressive corrosive environment. Machining of this alloy is still complicated. The feasibility of three inserts tested for milling of Inconel 718 has been shown in this work. Different cutting speeds a (…)

MODELLING OF BIOMATERIALS PROPERTIES MAGNESIUM-BASED ALLOYS

ANTON PANDA, KONSTIANTYN DYADYURA
Keywords: modelling | magnesium alloys | magnesium composite | biocompatibility | in vitro and in vivo corrosion | biomaterials | orthopaedics | biodegradable metallic implants

The degradation behavior of magnesium-based alloys is obviously important for medical applications of biomaterials. Magnesium alloys were investigated as implant materials. This article critically summarizes the  in vivo knowledge and experience that has been reported on the use of magnesium and its alloys to advance the field of biodegradable metals. The efficiency of the development approach is discus (…)

ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCING THE MACROSTRUCTURE AND HARDNESS OF CASTING SURFACE LAYER BY CHANGING CONDITIONS OF CRYSTALLIZATION

MONIKA KARKOVA, JAN MAJERNIK, JAN KMEC
Keywords: crystallization | Hardness | macrostructure | high pressure die casting

In manufacturing technology, we often encounter the demand for increasing surface hardness of the machinery components. Although there are new varied coating and surface hardening technologies, those are processes implying increasing costs, economic burden and time required for the manufacturing process including increase in production capacities, increased need for machinery and equipment, or possible (…)

DESIGN OF A MATERIAL CUTTING DEVICE WITH OPTION OF LENGTH ADJUSTMENT OF WOODEN CUTTING SUBSTANCE

JOZEF MASCENIK
Keywords: stand | Cutting | splitters

The aim of the paper is a structural design of a cutting device with option of length adjustment of cutting material. The introductory part of the paper is devoted to an analysis of available devices standardly employed in the process of wooden substance cutting. The core of the paper contains structural design and calculation of the individual parts, disposition solution of the device and a complete vi (…)

CALIBRATION OF PHOTOMETER-BASED DIRECT-READING AEROSOL MONITORS

MIROSLAV DADO, LUCIA MIKUSOVA, RICHARD HNILICA, ALENA OCKAJOVA
Keywords: photometer | correction factor | airborne particle concentration | gravimetric reference | sampling system

All photometer-based direct-reading aerosol monitors use the principle of the light scattering to determine airborne particle concentration. Most photometers are calibrated in the factory using a „standard test dust” and are adjusted to agree with respirable dust concentration measurements made using reference gravimetric methods. In practice, it is highly unlikely that the „standard” test dust will exh (…)

DESIGN OF A PROGRAM FOR CALCULATION OF FORCING SPRING STIFFNESS

SLAVKO PAVLENKO
Keywords: application | stress | generation | torsion | parameters

The presented paper deals with a design and generation of a program for calculation of stiffness and shear stress of forcing springs. The given calculation program was generated in the program of Microsoft Office through the Excel application by means of defined sequences of the individual orders. The calculation program serves for calculation of stiffness of cylindrical and conic helical forcing spring (…)

IDENTIFICATION OF SAFETY CULTURE LEVEL USING QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEYS

IRINA FEDORYCHEVA, MILOS HAMMER
Keywords: safety culture characteristics | questionnaire construction | safety performance | safety culture assessment

The aim of the present article is to provide information on the results of the safety culture assessment carried out in three engineering companies in the Czech Republic in 2017. Determining the level of safety culture helps to reveal the weaknesses in the work process from the point of view of safety in a particular company and, of course, it also allows to propose the necessary measures for improvemen (…)

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF IRRADIATED DURAMID WITH 45 % OF GLASS FIBRE BY BETA RAYS

ALES MIZERA, PAVEL STOKLASEK, MARTIN BEDNARIK, ZDENEK HOLIK
Keywords: thermal properties | DSC | TGA | radiation cross-linking | beta rays | DURAMID and temperature stability

DURAMID with 45 % of glass fibre (PA 9T) have been successfully modified using beta rays. PA 9T samples were prepared by injection moulding technology and then were irradiated from 33 to 198 kGy in electron accelerator RHODOTRON. The thermal properties (e.g. DSC and TGA) of modified PA 9T samples by beta rays were measured. The tested samples showed significant changes of thermal properties after irradi (…)

REPRODUCIBILITY OFTHERMAL ERROR BEHAVIOUR IN MACHINE TOOLS FROM THE SAME MODEL TYPE

PETR MINAR, TOMAS GREGOR
Keywords: Machine tool | ambient environment | thermal behaviour | error prediction | linear regression model | Compensation

The present paper deals with predictive modelling of thermal deviation of the machine tool due to thermal deformations. Thermal deformation of the machine tool structure is one of the basic problems that need to be addressed when increasing the accuracy of machine tools. For each particular machine tool, it is necessary to measure its behaviour, evaluate it, and, based on the acquired knowledge, create (…)

DESIGN AND CHECK OF THE MECHANICAL COMPONENTS BY THE PC APPLICATION

SLAVKO PAVLENKO
Keywords: design | calculation | program

The paper focuses especially on comparison of available programs for design and check of the mechanical components. The main aim of the paper is to analyse in the introductory part the individual programs from the perspective of content and functionality and consequently to compare the results experimentally in selected cases. The paper evaluates simplicity or complexity of work with the individual soft (…)

NOISE AND STEP HEIGHT PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED OPTICAL SURFACE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

MATEJ HARCARIK, ROBERT JANKOVYCH
Keywords: surface texture | confocal microscopy | coherence scanning interferometry | comparison of instruments | topography measurement noise | step height repeatability

Increasing demands for manufacturing quality and new standards in surface metrology foreshadow a widespread adoption of 3D surface topography measurement in manufacturing quality control. This raises the question of instrument selection. Coherence scanning interferometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy are some of the most common technologies in optical measurement of surface topography. These me (…)

ASPECTS OF THE INVESTIGATION OF THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF MACHINE TOOLS BY OPERATIONAL MODAL ANALYSIS

JAN BERTHOLD, MARTIN KOLOUCH, VOLKER WITTSTOCK, MATTHIAS PUTZ
Keywords: Machine tool | operational modal analysis | dynamics | excitation | cutting forces | identification

There are differences in the dynamic behaviour of a machine tool between standstill and process because of preloads, process damping and gyroscopic moments. The standard method to characterize the dynamic behaviour, the experimental modal analysis (EMA), is performed only in the standstill and neglects these effects. In contrast, operational modal analysis (OMA) makes possible a characterisation of the (…)

DIAGNOSTICS AND MAINTENANCE OF MACHINE TOOL SPINDLES- NEW VIEWS

ONDREJ HOLUB, MILOS HAMMER
Keywords: industry 4.0 | maintenance | technical diagnostics | offline- online diagnostics | vibrodiagnostics | visualization

This paper discusses changes in the field of maintenance brought by the Fourth Industrial Revolution - Industry 4.0. Main pillars of the Industry 4.0 are as follows: digitization, interconnection, linking and visualization of all corporate parts, starting from production, through maintenance, and ending by logistics. Maintenance is one of the areas affected most by these changes. It is not enough to m (…)

PARAMETERS INFLUENCING THE PRECISION OF VARIOUS 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGIES

PHANEENDRA MANTADA, RADOMIR MENDRICKY, JIRI SAFKA
Keywords: 3D Print | fused deposition modelling | polyJet matrix | stereolithography | selective laser sintering | 3D optical scanner | 3D digitization

This article focuses on parameters that influence production of parts by different 3D-printing technologies (FDM, Polyjet Matrix, SLA and SLS). This article acquaints its readers with data and results of research dealing with influence of production process parameter settings on the magnitude of internal material tension of the printed part, or its influence on dimension and shape precision of products (…)

INFLUENCE OF BETA RAYS ON POLYPROPYLENE

PAVEL STOKLASEK, ALES MIZERA, MIROSLAV MANAS, MARTIN BEDNARIK
Keywords: mechanical properties | tensile test | radiation cross-linking | beta rays | polypropylene and temperature stability

The polypropylene samples for testing were injection moulded and subsequently irradiated by beta radiation at the dose of 15 and 33 kGy with the kind help of BGS Germany. Temperature stability, tensile test, bending test and Charpy-impact test were applied. The influence of beta irradiation low doses on thermal and mechanical properties was subsequently compared. Just dose of irradiation 15 kGy improves (…)

EVALUATION OF OPERATIONAL SAFETY OF CHOSEN ELECTRICAL SET ELEMENTS IN CONDITIONS OF BIOGAS PLANTS WITH USING OF INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY METHOD

PETR JUNGA, PETR TRAVNICEK, JURAJ RUZBARSKY
Keywords: infrared thermography | electrical set element | surface temperature | thermal defect | biogas station

The paper is focused on evaluation of operational safety of chosen electrical set elements in specific conditions of agricultural biogas plants with using of infrared thermography method. The goal of the paper is thermography monitoring of the surface temperature of electrical set elements with detection of high warmed parts. Next goal is evaluation measured temperatures with criteria and requirements o (…)

INFLUENCE OF TESTING METHODS ON THE FINAL VALUES OF THE MODULUS OF ELASTICITY E

JIRI SOBOTKA, PAVEL SOLFRONK, DAVID KORECEK, MICHAELA KOLNEROVA
Keywords: modulus of elasticity | elastic deformation | linear fitting | material tests | slope of line | f-test | student´s t-test

In the area of elastic deformation there is linear dependence between the applied stress and final deformation, which is described by the Hooke´s law. Thus stress and strain are proportional to each other and constant of proportionality is termed as modulus of elasticity (even. Young´s modulus). So this material constant characterizes the elastic deformation behavior of the given material and its magnit (…)

SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS AND DIAGNOSTICS OF MOTOR POWERED BY FREQUENCY CONVERTER

PETR NAHODIL, MILOS HAMMER
Keywords: frequency converter | parasitic current and voltage | shaft voltage | capacitive current | technical diagnostics | FFT spectrum of vibrations acceleration | vibro-diagnostics

All of the technical devices that are powered by the frequency converter, apart from their great advantages, also bring considerable pitfalls and risks. When designing a machinery, it is necessary to consider the negative effects of characteristics of the frequency converter on the rotating parts, especially on the bearings of motors, gearboxes, gears, seals, etc. These devices and their parts are usual (…)

OPTIMISATION OF WEDM SETTINGS PARAMETERS WHEN MACHINING PURE ALUMINIUM USING THE DOE

KATERINA MOURALOVA, JIRI KOVAR, TOMAS PROKES, JOSEF BEDNAR, PAVEL HRABEC
Keywords: EDM | electrical discharge machining | design of experiment | P-parameters | root mean square deviation of the primary profile Pq | pure aluminium

The unconventional wire electric discharge machining technology (WEDM) is widely used in many industries, which is why there is a permanent emphasis on increasing the quality of suchmachined surface. The aim of this study was to carry out a design of experiment (DoE) to reduce the surface qualit yparameter Pq. During the 33-round experiment, the input factors – machine setting parameters, such as gap vo (…)

EFFECT OF TOP COVER SHAPE ON ENERGY DEMANDS AND WORKSPACE PRESSURE OF MULCHER

JAKUB CEDIK, JAN CHYBA, MARTIN PEXA, STANISLAV PETRASEK
Keywords: mulcher | energy demands | pressure conditions | workspace cover | energy losses

Mulchers with vertical axis of rotation are highly energy demanding machines and it is expedient to increase their effectiveness. The paper deals with evaluation of the effect of the shape of mulcher’s workspace cover on energy demands and pressure conditions of the workspace of mulcher with vertical axis of rotation. The pressure conditions inside the workspace are connected with the airflow which is v (…)

MONITORING OF PARAMETERS DIRECTLY INFLUENCING PERFORMANCE TRANSFER BY BELT GEAR

JOZEF MASCENIK
Keywords: stand | belt gear | motor | diagnostics | sensor

The aim of the presented paper is to point out the possibilities of determination of new types of belts of the belt gear in case of a newly developed device. The developing and structural-design stage was followed by production and installation of the device. An electric motor serves as a device drive and belt gear input. The other electric motor represents a system load factor. The frequency converters (…)

USE OF MULTIPARAMETRIC DIAGNOSTICS IN PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE

HANA OPOCENSKA, PETR NAHODIL, MILOS HAMMER
Keywords: predictive maintenance | vibration analysis | multiparametric diagnostics | trending of broadband vibration values | insulation resistance | polarization index | winding impact test

The present article describes how to use multiparametric diagnostics in maintenance. First, the maintenance is defined and its history is briefly analysed. Subsequently, the maintenance is divided according to current considerations. It is stated that the proactive maintenance represents the state-of-the-art approach to maintenance management. The use of multiparametric diagnostics, such as vibration an (…)

OPTIMALIZATION OF FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF RADIAL FANS

ANNA SMERINGAIOVA, MAREK WITTNER
Keywords: an | optimization | experimental tests | airflow | performance characteristics | delivery pressure

The article describes the process of optimizing the design of functional parts of radial fans. The main goal was to improve their performance characteristics. The proposed methodology was experimental measurements and the testing station had been built. After processing the results of the experiment the best fan construction option was chosen with optimum performance characteristics.

SORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF COOPER SORPTION ON THE CLINOPTILOLITE MEASURMENT

IVETA PANDOVA, PETER ORAVEC, DARINA MATISKOVA
Keywords: clinoptilolite | cooper | sorption | waste water

Natural zeolite has found important uses in environmental protection and water treatment.In term of chemical, the zeolites belongs to hydrate aluminosilicates and against the their structure they have unique physical-chemical properties. This atribute affords the zeolites utilisation at water cleaning from metal ions. The most offen method of removing metals from solutions is precipitation, which is par (…)

SAFETY OF THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM IN THE ABSENCE OF DESINFECTION RESIDUE

JAN RUCKA, MARKETA RAJNOCHOVA
Keywords: chlorine | disinfectant residue | water supply | undesired event | risks analysis

The paper focuses on the drinking water supply with public water mains without the use of disinfectant residues in the transported water. This method of delivering drinking water can only be considered if a sufficient number of functional barriers are present in the distribution system to prevent the penetration of pollution into the transported water. One of these barriers is, for example, a good techn (…)

SURFACE FINISHING OF 3D PRINTED SAMPLE MANUFACTURATED BY FUSED DEPOSITION MODELING

TOMAS CMOREJ, ANTON PANDA, PETR BARON, PETER POOR, MARTIN POLLAK
Keywords: 3D Print | optimization | Simulation | surface finishing

Currently, FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) is one of the most widely used methods in field of functional prototypes of components creation in various industries. When using RepRap type of printing in some cases occurs to reduced quality of surface area of component that is located on a support, or complications when removing the supporting material. For low surface quality of components produced by usi (…)

USING WEDM TO MACHINE A PURE MOLYBDENUM WELDING ELECTRODE

KATERINA MOURALOVA, RADIM ZAHRADNICEK, RADIM HRDY
Keywords: WEDM | electrical discharge machining | pure molybdenum | topography of surface | electrode for welding

Materials and elements with a high melting point, including molybdenum, are suitable for high temperature physical applications and the fabrication of components such as welding electrodes or wires to be used in spark erosion wire-cut machines. The classic, or conventional, approaches to machining pure molybdenum are aptly complemented with the frequently used unconventional wire electrical discharge ma (…)

ANALYSIS OF LOW FREQUENCY MAGNETIC FIELDS GENERATED DURING WELDING

JURAJ GLATZ, MICHAL GORZAS, ZUZANA KOTIANOVA
Keywords: safety | low frequency magnetic field | employee

The topic of the impact of electromagnetic fields on human body is nowadays very actual. One of the physical factors of the work environment is the electromagnetic fields emitted by the electric devices. The effect of electromagnetic fields on human body is various and depends mainly on frequency and intensity. Electromagnetic fields create a wide range of resources with which the workers can meet in th (…)

APPLICATION ON-THE-FLY MEASUEREMENT OF CNC MACHINE TOOLS

MICHAL HOLUB, JAN VETISKA, FRANTISEK BRADAC, MICHAL VALA
Keywords: Machine tool | Compensation | geometric accuracy | volumetric accuracy | tracking interferometer

The publication describes an on-the-fly tracking experiment using a self tracking interferometer on a small three-axis machining center. On-the-fly based on continuous measurement, you can get much more measured points while reducing the time required for machine tool calibration than using Trigger or time measurements. The present publication compares the time required for calibration of the machine, a (…)

CORRELATION BETWEEN DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF LINEAR GUIDE AND RADIAL FORCE LOAD

JAKUB STETINA, ZDENEK FIALA
Keywords: modal analysis | natural frequency | damping | linear guide | force load | dynamic compliance

A dynamic behavior of machine tools always depends on dynamic properties of machine tool individual parts; for example, a spindle unit, frame, ball screw, linear guide, etc.  The present paper deals with an analysis of dynamic properties of linear guide RA55AN. The guide was fixed to a special testing stand which enabled us to change and measure radial force loads of the linear guide via a thread mechan (…)

USE OF THE LCC ANALYSIS TO SELECT A TECHNICAL SOLUTION OF POWER DRIVE FOR APPLICATION AT RAILWAYS

ERIKA SUJOVA, HELENA CIERNA
Keywords: costs | Life-Cycle Costs (LCC) | locomotive engine | power drive

The paper addresses identification and analysis of individual costs of a life-cycle of engines for railways that meet required emission limits according to STAGE III.B.A cost analysis ofa life-cycle is an effective tool, which allows for observation of various options of technical solutions. The result of an LCC analysis is the basis on which a decision is made about selecting a technical solution of po (…)

POSITION-DEPENDENT RESPONSE SIMULATION OF MACHINE TOOL USING STATE-SPACE MODELS

FILIP KSICA, ZDENEK HADAS
Keywords: Machine tool | virtual model | component mode synthesis | state-space model | response simulation | position-dependent stability

The stability of a machining process is a function of the dynamic response between the spindle and table, which varies within the machine work volume. This paper deals with computationally efficient methodology to evaluate and simulate dynamic performance of the machine tool. A position-dependent virtual model is assembled using finite element model reduced via component mode synthesis and transformed t (…)

PROGNOSIS OF BEHAVIOUR OF MACHINE TOOL SPINDLES, THEIR DIAGNOSTICS AND MAINTENANCE

ANDRIY MOSYURCHAK, VLADIMIR VESELKOV, ANDREI TURYGIN, MILOS HAMMER
Keywords: neural networks | prognosis of diagnostic parameters behaviour | machine tool spindle | preventive and proactive maintenance | maintenance system | industry 4.0

The present article focuses on the use of neural networks to predict the behaviour of certain diagnostic parameters of spindles of machine tools. An online vibro-diagnostics is used, and from many specific measured parameters, the effective value of some variables in the time series. The results are used in the maintenance based on the technical condition, in particular, in preventive and proactive main (…)

MONITORING THE TECHNICAL CONDITION OF THE DEVICE USING THE VIBRATION DIAGNOSTIC METHOD

STEFANIA OLEJAROVA
Keywords: diagnostics | technical condition | vibration parameter | speed vibration | vibration acceleration

Vibrations are one of the important monitored parameters, which allow acquiring primary information about the operating condition of the device. It is necessary to bear in mind that vibrations of rotating machines are closely linked to the dynamic stress of the parts like bearings or transmissions. The paper is dealing with the issue of monitoring and diagnosing the size of the two based parameters of v (…)

HAMMER PEENING WITH A PIEZO-ACTUATED TOOL FOR SURFACE FINISHING

MARTIN KOLOUCH, MARKUS WABNER, ROBIN KURTH
Keywords: finishing | dynamics | piezoelectric | Simulation | hammer peening

Low roughness of free-form surfaces represents a challenge in production of forming tools. In the industry, the free-form surface is grinded and polished manually. The technology of hammer peening has the capability to replace the time consuming handcraft by automated machining with high productivity and other positive effects, like increased hardness and compressive residual stress in the surface layer (…)

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HYBRID COMPOSITES BASED ON POLYPROPYLENE MATRIX

MARTIN SEIDL, LUBOS BEHALEK, JIRI HABR
Keywords: cellulose fibres | polypropylene | hybrid composites | physical foaming agents | mechanical properties

The paper is focused on the analyses of the mechanical and physical properties of the hybrid composite systems based on the polypropylene matrix with implemented reinforcing cellulose fibres. The polymer phase of this conventional composites is furthermore modified by physical blowing agents, which are utilized for the formation of light microcellular structures. Interactions of all the components of th (…)

AUTOMATIC STRAIGHTENING OF HARDENED SHAFTS

ROBERT JANKOVYCH, MARTIN WEIGL, BORIS KUR
Keywords: dynamic measuring | hardened shafts | straightening ram | textile spindle | internal stress of hardened parts

The main purpose of this article is to present a new way of straightening hardened shafts. The straightening of regular shafts is usually not difficult, but the situation is very different in case of hardened shafts. The regular shafts are usually straightened by bending of the shaft in the opposite direction than the original deformation. Sadly, this approach cannot be applied on hardened shafts, becau (…)

CRITICAL RUNNER LENGTH AS A CONSTRAINING FACTOR IN GATING SYSTEM DESIGN

JAN MAJERNIK, JAN KMEC, MONIKA KARKOVA
Keywords: high pressure die casting | runner | construction | solidification | Simulation

The objective of gating system design and construction process using high pressure die casting is manufacturing of castings with good mechanical and quality properties. The design must take into account various parameters, ranging from the alloy properties through technical parameters of the casting cycle to the construction of the machine and the mould dimensions. If the design of gating system is mean (…)

SELECTION OF COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE METHODS DESIGNED FOR APPLICATION IN PNEUMATIC MUSCLE ACTUATOR

MARIA TOTHOVA, MONIKA TROJANOVA
Keywords: pneumatic muscle actuator | artificial muscle | antagonistic connection | intelligence method | neural network

Pneumatic muscle actuators have the highest power/weight ratio of any actuator and therefore it has a broad application prospect in soft robotics. This paper presents a two degree of freedom (2-DOF) pneumatic muscle actuator that consists of four pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) and two rotation joins. However, this pneumatic muscle actuator has highly nonlinear and hysteretic properties (among muscl (…)

STUDY OF WEIGHTED MULTILATERATION IN VOLUMETRY OF CNC MACHINE TOOLS

BARBORA NAVRATILOVA, LUKAS KOKRDA
Keywords: accuracy of measurement | multilateration | weighted multilateration | Machine tool | LaserTRACER

This paper describes utilization of a multilateration principle in the multi axis machine error modeling. Multilateration plays an important role in the identification of the exact position of the point in a machine tool workspace. The measured data were obtained using laser tracer in spherical coordinates. The multilateration attempts to improve the data accuracy using only a radial component. Two appr (…)